The total mineral content of drinking water is determined by the composition of mineral substances dissolved in the water. It amounts to the arithmetical sum of the concentrations of all cations (positively charged ions) and anions (ions bearing negative charge) in water. Analytically the mineral content is usually estimated by measuring the dry residue after evaporation of water (we must add, however, that this method often gives understated results due to partial loss of the bicarbonate ion content). The major contributors to the total mineral content are the following ions: calcium (Ca2+), magnesium (Mg2+), sodium (Na+), potassium, (K+), chloride ions (Cl-), sulfate ions (SO42-), and hydrogen carbonate ions (HCO3-). As drinking water is supposed to be free from unwanted inorganic and organic substances, the total mineral content of drinking water can be also referred to as the TDS (total dissolved solids).
The total mineral content is one of the integral parameters of drinking water quality. Unlike mineral waters mineralized at the level of over a gram per liter (and sometimes ten times higher than that), the mineral content of bottled drinking (table) water should not exceed 1000 mg/l (but not less than 50 mg/l) for drinking water of the first category by Russian standards. High quality drinking water (higher category by Russian standards) should be mineralized within 200-500 mg/l. This range, according to current understanding and scientific data, is the optimum for water used for daily drinking and food preparation.
Membrane technologies, such as reverse osmosis, deprive water of virtually all ions constituting its mineral content. To eliminate this side effect of the RO method we offer our Severyanka® mineral supplements which can be effectively used for remineralization of purified drinking water.
Why Enrich Water with Mineral Supplements
The widespread usage of high-performance membrane purifiers has an ambivalent impact on drinking water quality and public health. On the one hand, water is cleaned from pathogenic microbes and other harmful impurities. On the other hand, all essential minerals and trace elements are eliminated as well. To correct this situation, mineralization of the purified water is performed. In industry this is accomplished by usage of dosing pumps to inject mineral supplements into the flow of water.
We must note that in some regions, such as the North-West of Europe, surface water used for water supply is very soft, i.e. virtually devoid of calcium and magnesium. Thus in these regions the negative health impact of demineralized drinking water exists irrespective of purification technologies. Using mineral supplements for correcting mineral deficiency appears to be highly relevant in these regions. To name one, it is relevant in Saint Petersburg – the city where we produce Severyanka® mineral supplements since 1999.
Enrichment of Water with Calcium
Water with very low natural hardness, as well as water purified by membrane technologies, presents an important risk factor related to calcium deficiency. Chronic exposure to such deficiency is fraught with a higher risk of a variety of pathologies, including osteoporosis, rickets, age-related bone loss, etc. To compensate the contribution of demineralized drinking water to this risk, enrichment of such water with calcium-containing mineral supplements is highly appropriate.
Enrichment of Water with Magnesium
A great body of research has shown that low content of magnesium in drinking water correlates with higher occurrence of such cardiovascular pathologies as ischemic heart disease, cardiac arrhythmias, and myocardial infarction. Therefore, supplementing low-magnesium water with physiologically adequate levels of this element is highly recommended. The same is relevant for water treated by membrane purifying methods such as reverse osmosis.
Enhancement of Mineral Content of Water
The total mineral content of drinking water can be increased using different mineral supplements based on calcium and magnesium salts (chlorides and/or sulfates), and/or on sodium and potassium compounds (mainly bicarbonates). Usage of these supplements is highly relevant in regions with very soft water supply, as well as in bottled water industry after membrane purification.
Enhancement of Drinking Water Alkalinity
We produce and offer a variety of supplements containing hydrogen carbonates of alkaline elements – potassium and sodium. These supplements increase water alkalinity, enhance and stabilize water pH, and may improve drinking water palatability.